2. F - closer
4. F - Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera
5. F - endogenous
6. A 11. A
7. D 12. D
8. C 13. B
9. B 14. A
10. A 15. C
16. Yellowjacket, Monarch butterfly, Honey bee, etc.
17. Tympanum, chordotonal organ, pressure receptor, etc.
18. Prowling, courtship, wing fanning, etc.
19. Birth, death, immigration, or emigration
20. Sunrise, sunset, etc.
21. A 26. D
22. D 27. A
23. A 28. D
24. C 29. A
25. E 30. E
31. 100 eggs; 64 first-instar nymphs; 32 second-instar nymphs;
16 third-instar nymphs; 8 fourth-instar nymphs; 4 adults
(2 males and 2 females). "R" = 2 (population increasing).
32. Taxis is "directed" movement toward or away from a
stimulus. It requires input from a pair of sensory
receptors. Kinesis is "undirected" -- a change in
rate of locomotion or frequency of turning in response
to a stimulus. Only one receptor is needed.
33. Conditioning involves "substitution" of one stimulus in
place of another (learning to associate stimulus "A"
with stimulus "B"). Conditioning may occur at any time
in the life cycle. Imprinting occurs only early in life
during a short vulnerable period when sensory cues (usually
host odor) are "indelibly" recorded for future recall.
34. Commissures run laterally in the body, joining the paired
ganglia within a single body segment. Connectives run
longitudinally, joining the ganglia of consecutive body
35. Olfactory (smell) receptors detect airborne chemicals.
They are usually porous, thin-walled, domes or pegs located
on the antennae. Gustatory (taste) receptors detect
substrate-borne chemicals. They are often hollow hairs
(setae) or pits located on tarsi, palps, or ovipositors.
36. Lateral ocelli (stemmata) are the primary visual organs
of holometabolous larvae. Dorsal ocelli are simple eyes
that are found in addtion to compound eyes in many nymphs
(Hemimetabola) and in adults of both Hemimetabola and
37. Essay: A thorough answer would include a discussion of
at least five of the following points --
a. production of a chemical defense
b. aposematic coloration
c. mimicry of an unpalatable species
d. better cryptic coloration
e. improved flight for faster escape
f. change in time of activity to avoid predator
g. intimidation display or other startle response