1. T 6. F
2. T 7. T
3. F 8. T
4. F 9. F
5. T 10. F
12. B 17. C 22. B 27. C
13. C 18. A 23. D 28. D
14. D 19. A 24. D 29. E
15. D 20. C 25. A 30. B or E
16. D 21. D 26. C 31. A or C
32. a.) premature development of adult characteristics at the next molt
b.) transformation to a pupa at the next molt
c.) sterility or reduced fecundity
33. a.) hole located at anterior end of egg
b.) opening for entry of sperm into egg
34. a.) abdominal appendage in Collembola
b.) springtail organ
35. a.) inside head capsule (fused apophyses)
b.) internal reinforcement of head capsule and point of attachment
for muscles associated with the mouthparts
36. a.) metathorax of true fly (Diptera)
b.) balance organ for flight (gyroscopic stabilizer)
37. a.) ventral side of head, below tentorium
b.) tongue-like structure in mandibulate insects
38. Endocuticle is a soft, flexible matrix of chitin and protein.
In exocuticle, the protein is cross-linked by quinones -- making
it more rigid and darker in color.
39. Endoderm develops into the midgut; ectoderm forms the epidermis,
brain, nervous system, foregut, hindgut, and much of the respiratory
40. A grasshoppers front wing (tegmen) is leathery or parchment-like (back
wings are membranous); a beetle's front wing (elytra) is heavily
sclerotized and serves as a protective cover (back wings are
41. Orthopteroids have primitive mandibulate (chewing) mouthparts and
little or no fusion of abdominal ganglia. Hemipteroids have more
specialized mouthparts (adapted for sucking) and significant fusion
of abdominal ganglia.
42. Two tagma (cephalothorax and abdomen), two pairs of antennae,
marine habitat, no malpighian tubules, etc.
source = D structure = C function = B
source = A structure = A function = A
source = A structure = A function = E
source = B structure = B function = C
source = C structure = A function = D
44. Grasshopper, cricket, katydid, etc.
45. Ant, bee, wasp, sawfly, etc.
46. Silverfish, firebrat
47. Lacewing, antlion, dobsonfly, fishfly, owlfly, etc.
48. True bug, cicada, leafhopper, scale insect, aphid, etc.
49. Essay: A thorough answer would include a discussion of
several of the following points --
a. neoptera vs. paleoptera
b. direct vs. indirect flight muscles
c. elasticity of the thoracic box
d. wing-coupling mechanisms
e. neurogenic vs. myogenic