Exam 1 — Version B

 1.  T           6.  F  
 2.  T           7.  T  
 3.  F           8.  T  
 4.  F           9.  F  
 5.  T          10.  F  

12.  B          17.  C          22.  B          27.  C
13.  C          18.  A          23.  D          28.  D
14.  D          19.  A          24.  D          29.  E
15.  D          20.  C          25.  A          30.  B or E
16.  D          21.  D          26.  C          31.  A or C

32.  a.)  premature development of adult characteristics at the next molt
     b.)  transformation to a pupa at the next molt
     c.)  sterility or reduced fecundity

33.  a.)  hole located at anterior end of egg
     b.)  opening for entry of sperm into egg

34.  a.)  abdominal appendage in Collembola
     b.)  springtail organ

35.  a.)  inside head capsule (fused apophyses)
     b.)  internal reinforcement of head capsule and point of attachment 
          for muscles associated with the mouthparts

36.  a.)  metathorax of true fly (Diptera)
     b.)  balance organ for flight (gyroscopic stabilizer)

37.  a.)  ventral side of head, below tentorium
     b.)  tongue-like structure in mandibulate insects 

38.  Endocuticle is a soft, flexible matrix of chitin and protein.
     In exocuticle, the protein is cross-linked by quinones -- making
     it more rigid and darker in color.

39.  Endoderm develops into the midgut; ectoderm forms the epidermis,
     brain, nervous system, foregut, hindgut, and much of the respiratory

40.  A grasshoppers front wing (tegmen) is leathery or parchment-like (back
     wings are membranous); a beetle's front wing (elytra) is heavily
     sclerotized and serves as a protective cover (back wings are

41.  Orthopteroids have primitive mandibulate (chewing) mouthparts and 
     little or no fusion of abdominal ganglia.  Hemipteroids have more
     specialized mouthparts (adapted for sucking) and significant fusion
     of abdominal ganglia.

42.  Two tagma (cephalothorax and abdomen), two pairs of antennae, 
     marine habitat, no malpighian tubules, etc.

43.  Ecdysteroids:
          source = D     structure = C     function = B
     Eclosion Hormone
          source = A     structure = A     function = A
          source = A     structure = A     function = E
     Juvenile Hormone
          source = B     structure = B     function = C
     Brain Hormone
          source = C     structure = A     function = D

44.  Grasshopper, cricket, katydid, etc.
45.  Ant, bee, wasp, sawfly, etc.
46.  Silverfish, firebrat
47.  Lacewing, antlion, dobsonfly, fishfly, owlfly, etc.
48.  True bug, cicada, leafhopper, scale insect, aphid, etc.

49.  Essay:  A thorough answer would include a discussion of
     several of the following points --
        a.  neoptera vs. paleoptera
        b.  direct vs. indirect flight muscles
        c.  elasticity of the thoracic box
        d.  wing-coupling mechanisms
        e.  neurogenic vs. myogenic
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